Most cameras provide EXIF information, which is a standardized set of codes which will include, if complete, the model of camera used, often the serial number, and the lens as well. If you are submitting a photo to some agency that requires that information be sure not to use the option "save for web," or similar phrases, which strip out EXIF info for anonymity. If you're looking to confirm an image you've seen or received, it will be dependent on whether the person sending it included EXIF info and whether the site itself leaves it out. You can copy an image to your computer, and various programs will read at least some of the information. Some photo-specific sites will allow EXIF info to stay in images that are posted.
Firefox has an "Exif viewer" extension which will read EXIF information in any image displayed, if it is there. There are other options, if you have an image you want to check. You can copy it to your computer, and various programs can be used to find the information in it. There's an "exiftool" program that reads it all but requires installation and setup, but the freeware file viewing and converting program Irfanview will also read some, as will the "properties" of a file in Windows 10 itself.
Most, if not all, the EXIF info from a Raw file will survive the transition to JPG if you don't strip it out.